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2013: Bridging Rural and Urban Perspectives

The world is urbanizing rapidly, with cities today concentrating more than half the world’s population. While it is widely accepted that development and urbanization go hand in hand, the expansion of cities gives rise to both opportunities and challenges, with countries urbanizing in quite different ways. Urbanization has been occurring at different times and different paces, and some countries have concentrated the urban populations in few mega cities, while others have spread the urban populations across many smaller towns. Particularly little is known about the relation between the pace and nature of the urbanization process and the evolution of inequality and poverty. This conference aimed to initiate a dialogue among all stakeholders on the drivers and patterns of urbanization and their consequences for inequality and poverty to elicit key insights for policymakers, with special attention to Africa’s unfolding urbanization process.

Peter Lanjouw

Research Manager, Poverty Group, World Bank
Peter Lanjouw is a Research Manager of the Poverty Group in the Development Economics Research Group of the World Bank. He has worked at the World Bank since 1992, after completing his doctoral studies in Economics from the London School of Economics. His research has focused on rural development, notably the study of a village economy in rural India and the broader analysis of rural non-farm diversification, as well as a number of methodological questions in the measurement of poverty and inequality. He has taught at the Vrije University in Amsterdam, UC Berkeley, University of Namur, the Foundation for the Advanced Study of International Development in Tokyo, and is also an Honorary Fellow of the Amsterdam Institute of International Development, Amsterdam. He is a past editorial board member of the World Bank Economic Review and a present editorial board member of the Journal of African Economies.

Luc Christiaensen

Senior Economist, World Bank
Luc Christiaensen is a Senior Economist in the Chief Economist Office of the Africa Region of the World Bank. He has written extensively on poverty, rural development, and the structural transformation in Africa and East Asia. He was a core member of the 2008 World Development Report “Agriculture for Development” and a Senior Research Fellow at the United Nations University-WIDER in Helsinki in 2009-2010. He has a PhD in agricultural economics from Cornell University.

Harris Selod

Senior Economist, World Bank
Harris Selod is a senior economist with the Development Research Group of the World Bank and co-chair of the World Bank's Land Thematic Group. Harris has published research papers on a variety of topics in regional and public economics, including theories of squatting and residential informality, the political economy of investments in transport infrastructure, the effects of residential segregation on schooling and unemployment, and the socio-economic impacts of land reforms and place-based policies. Prior to joining the World Bank in 2007, he was an associate professor at the Paris School of Economics and a researcher at the French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA). He holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Paris Panthéon-Sorbonne and graduated from the Ecole Nationale de la Statistique et de l’Administration Economique (ENSAE).

Rémi Jedwab

Assistant Professor of Economics, GWU
Rémi Jedwab is an assistant professor of Economics and International Affairs at the Elliott School and the Department of Economics of George Washington University. He received his Ph.D. in economics from the Paris School of Economics. He was also a visiting Ph.D. student at the London School of Economics for three years. Professor Jedwab's main field of research is urban economics, though his work also has strong development economics, public economics/political economy and economic history themes. Some of the issues he has studied include urbanization and structural transformation, the economic effects of transportation infrastructure, and agricultural and economic development in Africa. His research has been published in the American Economic Review, the Review of Economics and Statistics, the Economic Journal and the Journal of Economic Growth. Recently, Professor Jedwab research areas have included the phenomenon of urbanization without economic growth, and his research has been highlighted by The Atlantic's CityLab and the Boston Globe.

James Foster

Professor of Economics and International Affairs, GWU
James Foster is Professor of Economics and International Affairs at George Washington University. Foster received his Ph.D. in economics from Cornell University. Professor Foster's research focuses on welfare economics — using economic tools to evaluate the well-being of people. His joint 1984 Econometrica paper is one of the most cited papers on poverty; it introduced the FGT Index, which has been used in thousands of studies and was the basis for targeting the Progresa/Oportunidades program in Mexico. Other work includes a book project on economic inequality with Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen; a paper on poverty and growth in a recent issue of the International Economic Review with Miguel Szekely, Undersecretary of Education in Mexico; a paper measuring multidimensional poverty with Sabina Alkire, Director of Oxford's Poverty and Human Development Initiative; and research on inequality in human development in Latin America with Luis Felipe Lopez Calva, Chief Economist, UNDP, Latin America and the Caribbean.

Zoubida Allaoua

Director, Urban and Disaster Risk Management; World Bank

Zoubida Allaoua has over 20 years of experience with the World Bank, since she joined in 1988 through the Young Professionals Program. She has since then held various positions as Economist covering West Africa, China, India and Pakistan. In 2002, she was appointed Sector Manager, Private and Financial Sector Development for the Middle East and North Africa Region. In May 2009, she was appointed Director for Urban and Disaster Risk Management Department (UDR), which is the global practice leading the Bank's agenda on Sustainable Urbanization, City services, Resilience and Disaster Risk Management.

Julio A. Berdegué

Principal Researcher at Rimisp-Latin American Center for Rural Development, Santiago, Chile

Julio A. Berdegué is Principal Researcher at Rimisp-Latin American Center for Rural Development, Santiago, Chile. He holds a Ph.D. in Social Science from Wageningen University, The Netherlands. Presently, at Rimisp he coordinates the Collaborative Program on Territorial Cohesion for Development, a research-based policy advice and capacity-development program addressing issues of spatial inequalities in several Latin American countries. His interest on small and medium provincial towns and cities highlights the role these localities can play in fostering economic growth with social inclusion in non-metro regions of Latin America.

Jan K. Brueckner

Professor of Economics, University of California-Irvine

Jan K. Brueckner (AB, UC Berkeley; PhD, Stanford University) was long- time faculty member at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign before coming to UCI in 2005. Brueckner has published extensively in the reas of urban economics, public economics, housing finance, and the economics of the airline industry, with more than 125 journal articles to his credit. He is also author of an innovative new textbook, Lectures on Urban Economics (MIT Press, 2011). Brueckner served as editor of the Journal of Urban Economics for 16 years and is currently a member of the editorial boards of 6 journals. He has served as a consultant to the World Bank, many of the major airlines, and other organizations.

Massimiliano Calì

Trade Economist, World Bank

Massimiliano Calì is a trade economist in the World Bank’s International Trade Department. His current and recent work focuses on trade in fragile countries, on the relation between economics and conflict, and on the economic consequences of urbanization. Prior to joining the Bank in 2012, he served as an economic advisor to the Palestinian Ministry of National Economy in Ramallah, as a research fellow with the Overseas Development Institute (based in London, Geneva and Jerusalem), and as an economist with the Italian embassy to Bolivia in La Paz. In these capacities he has provided economic policy advice to a number of Ministries in developing countries as well as to international organizations and NGOs. He has published in the fields of trade and development, state-business relations, migration and urbanization. He holds a PhD in Economic Geography from the London School of Economics and an MA in Development Economics from the University of East Anglia.

Klaus Deininger

Lead Economist, World Bank

Klaus Deininger is the lead economist in the World Bank's Development Research Group. His research focuses on inequality and its impact on poverty reduction and growth; on the impact of land access, tenure, and reform on household welfare and agricultural productivity; on the political economy of decentralized rural development; and on impact evaluation and capacity building in developing countries. For from 2007-2011, he was also the World Bank's land tenure adviser. He holds a Ph.D. in applied economics from the University of Minnesota and has published more than 50 articles and a number of books, including a 2003 report, "Land Policies for Growth and Poverty Reduction," and a recent book, Rising Global Interest in Farmland: Can It Yield Sustainable and Equitable Benefits?

Shantayanan Devarajan

Chief Economist, Middle East and North Africa Region, World Bank

Shantayanan Devarajan is the Chief Economist of the World Bank’s Middle East and North Africa Region. Since joining the World Bank in 1991, he has been a Principal Economist and Research Manager for Public Economics in the Development Research Group, and the Chief Economist of the Human Development Network, of the South Asia Region, and of the Africa Region. He was the director of the World Development Report 2004, Making Services Work for Poor People. Before 1991, he was on the faculty of Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government. The author or co-author of over 100 publications, Mr. Devarajan’s research covers public economics, trade policy, natural resources and the environment, and general equilibrium modeling of developing countries. Born in Sri Lanka, Mr. Devarajan received his B.A. in mathematics from Princeton University and his Ph.D. in economics from the University of California, Berkeley.

Sebastian Galiani

Professor of Economics, University of Maryland

Sebastian Galiani is a Professor of Economics at University of Maryland and Visiting Professor at Universidad de San Andres, Argentina. He is a member of the executive committee of LACEA. Galianiobtained his Ph.D. in Economics from Oxford University and works in the areas of Development Economics and Applied Microeconomics. He published papers in the Journal of Political Economy, Quarterly Journal of Economics, American Economic Journal, Review of Economics and Statistics, Journal of Public Economics, Journal of Development Economics, Economic Development and Cultural Change, Regional Science and Urban Economics and Labour Economics, among others. His work has been featured in Science, The Economist, The Wall Street Journal, The Times and various other newspapers around the world. Sebastian has also worked as consultant for United Nations, Inter-American Development Bank, World Bank, and the governments of Argentina, Mexico, Panama and South Africa.

Douglas Gollin

Professor of Development Economics, Oxford University

Douglas Gollin is Professor of Development Economics in the Department of International Development at Oxford University. His research focuses broadly on economic development and growth. He has particular interests in agricultural productivity and the impacts of agricultural technologies. His work has also looked at the role of transport costs in shaping spatial patterns of development; the importance of small firms and self employment in poor countries; and the macroeconomic effects of disease. Professor Gollin joined Oxford in October 2012 after spending sixteen years on the faculty of Williams College in the United States, where he retains an affiliation. His current research projects include work in Ethiopia, Ghana, Tanzania, and Uganda. He is a managing editor for the Journal of African Economies and an associate editor for the Journal of Development Economics. Professor Gollin holds an A.B. degree from Harvard University and an M.A. in international relations from Yale University. He received his PhD in economics from the University of Minnesota in 1996.

Peter Hazell

Visiting Professor, Imperial College London

Peter Hazell trained as an agriculturalist in England before completing his Ph. D. in agricultural economics at Cornell University and a post-doctoral assignment at the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. From 1972 to 2005 he held various research positions at the World Bank and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), including serving as director of the environment and production technology division (1992-2003) and the development strategy and governance division (2003-2005) at IFPRI. After returning to the UK in 2005, he became a Visiting Professor at Imperial College London and a Professorial Research Associate at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Peter’s extensive and widely cited publications include works on mathematical programming; risk management; insurance; the impact of technological change on growth and poverty; the rural nonfarm economy; sustainable development strategies for marginal lands; the role of agriculture in economic development: and the future of small farms. Peter has worked throughout Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Central America.

Vernon Henderson

Eastman Professor of Political Economy and Professor of Economics and Urban Studies, Brown University

Vernon Henderson is the Eastman Professor of Political Economy and Professor of Economics and Urban Studies at Brown University, and a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. He has been at Brown since 1974. His Ph.D. is from the University of Chicago and his B.A. from the University of British Columbia. He has conducted research on aspects of urbanization and local government finance and regulation in the USA, Brazil, Canada, India, China, Korea and Indonesia. . Besides the work on night lights, his current research examines urban land auctions conducted by the state in China, exclusionary ploicies of localities in Brazil resisting in-migration of low skill people, and the aid effort and recovery from the tsunami in 200 coastal villages in Aceh, Indonesia.

Ravi Kanbur

T. H. Lee Professor of World Affairs, and Professor of Economics, Cornell University

Ravi Kanbur holds a BA from Cambridge and a Ph.D from Oxford. He has taught at the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, Essex, Warwick, Princeton and Columbia. Ravi Kanbur has served on the senior staff of the World Bank, including as Chief Economist of the African Region and Director of the World Bank's World Development Report. Professor Kanbur's main areas of interest are public economics and development economics. His vita lists over 200 publications including in American Economic Review, Journal of Political Economy, Review of Economic Studies, Journal of Economic Theory, and Economic Journal. The honors he has received include the Quality of Research Discovery Award of the American Agricultural Economics Association and an Honorary Professorship at the University of Warwick. He is President-Elect of the Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.

R. Mukami Kariuki

Sector Manager, Urban Development and Services in East and Southern Africa, World Bank

R. Mukami Kariuki, is currently Sector Manager for Urban Development and Services in East and Southern Africa at the World Bank. She is also the thematic coordinator for Urban Development in Africa. An Urban and Regional Planner by training, she has more than 20 years of experience in the fields of decentralization, local capacity building, urban/regional development planning, and infrastructure and service delivery. Her work experience spans several continents and a range of urban sector priorities including slum upgrading, disaster management, local government and decentralization; it includes specialization in the water sector, including pro-poor water supply and sanitation services, local and small private service providers, services for small towns. She has written or contributed to a number of papers, articles, newsletters, on diverse topics including the World Bank’s Water Sector Strategy, 2003; “Guidelines for Town Water Supply”, “Local Private Providers of Water and Energy Services”, and “Water for the Urban Poor: Water Markets, Household Demand, and Service Preferences in Kenya”.

Sukkoo Kim

Associate Professor of Economics at WUSTL; Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic

Sukkoo Kim is Associate Professor of Economics at Washington University
in St. Louis and a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic
Research. He received his Ph.D. in Economics from University of
California, Los Angeles in 1993. His primary field is in U.S. economic
history and his research interests include U.S. urban and regional
development, the rise of regulatory state, the rise of modern business
enterprises, institutions and economic development in the Americas and
India, and is currently working on a book manuscript which studies the
evolution of U.S. economic geography from a historical perspective.

Somik V. Lall

Lead Economist, World Bank

Somik V. Lall is a Lead Economist for Urban Development at the World Bank's Urban Development and Resilience Unit in the Sustainable Development Network. He is the lead author of a World Bank report on urbanization "Planning, Connecting, and Financing Cities Now: Priorities for City Leaders." He was a core team member of the 2009 World Development Report "Reshaping Economic Geography", and recently Senior Economic Counsellor to the Indian Prime Minister's National Transport Development Policy Committee. Somik currently leads a World Bank program on the Urbanization Reviews, which provides diagnostic tools and a policy framework for policymakers to manage rapid urbanization and city development. His research interests span urban and spatial economics, infrastructure development, and public finance. He has over 40 publications featuring in peer reviewed journals, edited volumes, and working papers. Somik holds a bachelors degree in engineering, masters in city planning, and doctorate in economics and public policy.

Will Martin

Research Manager, Agriculture and Rural Development
World Bank

Will Martin is Manager for Agricultural and Rural Development in the World Bank’s Research Group. His recent research has focused primarily on the impacts of changes in trade policy and food prices on poor people in developing countries. Earlier research has also examined the impact of major trade policy reforms—including the Uruguay Round; the Doha Development Agenda; and China’s accession to the WTO—on developing countries; implications of climate change for poor people; and implications of improvements in agricultural productivity in developing countries. He trained in economics and agricultural economics at the University of Queensland, the Australian National University and Iowa State University and worked at the Australian Bureau of Agricultural Economics and the Australian National University before joining the World Bank in 1991.

Forhad Shilpi

Senior Economist, World Bank

Forhad Shilpi is a Senior Economist in the Development Research Group (Agriculture and Rural Development Team). Her current research focuses on the impacts of infrastructure and communication on rural-urban transformation, domestic market institutions’ role in the transmission of international price signals, and intergenerational mobility in developing countries. She holds a Ph.D. degree in economics from the Johns Hopkins University, where she taught econometrics and macroeconomics. Prior to joining the World Bank, she worked as a research associate at the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies.

Stephen C. Smith

Professor of Economics and International Affairs, George Washington University

Stephen C. Smith is Professor of Economics and International Affairs at George Washington University. Smith received his PhD in economics from Cornell University and has been a Fulbright Research Scholar and a Jean Monnet Research Fellow. Smith is also an IZA Research Fellow. He serves as an Associate Editor of the Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. From 2009-2012, Smith served as Director of the Institute for International Economic Policy, where he helped create its four signature initiatives: climate adaptation in developing countries; extreme poverty; global economic governance; and the “G2 at GW” series. Smith has done on-site research and program work in several regions of the developing world including Bangladesh, China, Ecuador, India, Uganda, and Former Yugoslavia. Smith has also conducted extensive research on the economics of employee participation, including works councils, ESOPs, and labor cooperatives in developed and developing countries.


09.00-9.15: Coffee and registration

09.15-9.30: Opening Remarks: Zoubida Allaoua (World Bank, Director for UDR) and Will Martin (World Bank, Research Manager for DECAR)

Chair: R. Mukami Kariuki (World Bank)

9.30-10.00: Sukkoo Kim (Washington University in St. Louis) Changes in the American Landscape.

10.00-10.30: Somik Lall (World Bank) Urbanization in Asia.

10.30-11.00: Julio Berdegué (Latin American Center for Rural Development) Cities, territories and inclusive growth in Latin America.

11.00-11.30: Remi Jedwab, (George Washington University) The Speed of Urbanization: Tales from Europe and Africa,

11.30-11.45: Questions/discussion with audience

11.45-13.00: Lunch

Chair: Stephen Smith (George Washington University)

13.00-13.30: Doug Gollin (University of Oxford) Urbanization with and without Industrialization.

13.30-14.00: Sukkoo Kim (University of Maryland) Political Centralization and Urban Primacy in the Americas.

14.00-14.30: Vernon Henderson (Brown University) Is African Urbanization Different?

14.30-14.45: Questions/discussion with audience

14.45-15.15: Coffee Break

Chair: Forhad Shilpi (World Bank)

15.15-15.45: Jan Brueckner (University of California-Irvine) Urban Squatting with Rent-Seeking Organizers.

15.45-16.15: Harris Selod (World Bank) City Structure and Informal Property Rights in West African Cities.

16.15-16.45: Justin Sandefur (Center for Global Development) Land Titling in Urban Slums.

16.45-17.00: Questions/discussion with audience

17.45-21.00: Reception + Dinner (by INVITATION Only). Welcome speech: James Foster (George Washington University)
City View Room (7th Floor Panoramic Room) of the Elliott School of International Affairs
1957 E St NW (5 minutes by walk)


Chair: James Foster (George Washington University)

9.00-9.30: Doug Gollin (University of Oxford) Sectoral Productivity Gap in Developing Countries.

9.30-10.00: Peter Lanjouw (World Bank) Poverty and City Size - Is There a Metropolitan Bias?

10.00-10.30: Luc Christiaensen (World Bank) Urbanization and Poverty - Don't forget the Middle.

10.30-11.00: Massimiliano Cali (World Bank) Does Urbanisation Affect Rural Poverty? Evidence from India.

11.00-11.15: Questions/discussion with audience

11.15-11.30: Coffee Break

Chair: Shantayanan Devarajan, Chief Economist, MENA Region, World Bank

11.30-12.30: Panelists: Vernon Henderson (Brown University); Ravi Kanbur (Cornell University); Peter Hazell (SOAS, University of London)

12:30-12:45: Closing Remarks by Organizing Committee

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